Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

Unauthorized practice of medicine refers to offering medical services, including diagnosis, treatment, or prescription of medications, without the proper authorization, such as the required licenses, certifications, or educational qualifications. Unauthorized practice of medicine is a serious offense that can have severe consequences for the individuals involved. At Long Beach Criminal Attorney, we understand the complexity of this offense, the burden of proof required by the prosecution, and the potential defenses available. Whether you have been wrongfully accused or made a mistake, we will work to present your side of the story and protect your rights throughout the legal process.

Understanding Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

The practice of medicine is highly regulated to ensure that medical professionals possess the knowledge, skills, and training required to provide competent and safe care to patients. Licensing boards, professional associations, and governmental bodies establish and enforce standards to protect the public from unqualified individuals offering medical services.

Engaging in unauthorized practice of medicine can take various forms. It may involve individuals falsely claiming to be medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, or therapists, without holding the requisite licenses or credentials. These individuals may set up clinics, advertise their services, and provide medical treatments without the necessary qualifications, thereby deceiving patients who rely on their expertise.

Unauthorized practice of medicine can also extend to non-medical professionals who offer medical services beyond their authorized scope of practice. For example, individuals without medical training who perform invasive procedures, prescribe medications, or provide diagnosis and treatment advice may be considered to be engaging in the unauthorized practice of medicine.

Elements of Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

The following are key elements associated with unauthorized practice of medicine under Section 2052 of the California Business and Professions Code:

Lack of Licensure or Authorization

The individual accused of unauthorized practice of medicine must not hold a valid license or authorization to practice medicine. This means they do not possess the required licenses issued by the California Medical Board or other relevant licensing authorities.

Diagnosis, Treatment, or Prescription

Unauthorized practice of medicine involves the performance of activities that are within the purview of licensed medical professionals. This includes engaging in acts such as diagnosing medical conditions, providing medical treatment or advice, or prescribing medications to patients.

Holding Oneself Out as a Licensed Medical Professional

The individual must present themselves to the public as a licensed medical professional, such as a doctor, physician, or surgeon, without actually holding the necessary licenses or qualifications. This can be done through the use of titles, advertising, or any other means that may mislead patients into believing they are receiving medical services from a licensed practitioner.

Intent or Knowledge

Section 2052 of the California Business and Professions Code requires a showing of intent or knowledge on the part of the individual engaged in unauthorized practice of medicine. It must be established that they knew or should have known that they were practicing medicine without the required authorization or licensure.

Harm or Potential for Harm

While not always a required element, the potential for harm or actual harm to patients is often considered in unauthorized practice of medicine cases. The lack of proper training, qualifications, and adherence to professional standards increases the risk of harm to patients and is an important factor in determining the severity of the offense.

Investigating and Prosecuting Unauthorized Practice of Medicine Cases

Investigating and prosecuting cases of unauthorized practice of medicine is a collaborative effort involving various entities, including law enforcement agencies, regulatory bodies, and legal authorities. The process follows a series of steps aimed at gathering evidence, conducting thorough investigations, and ensuring a fair legal process. Here is an overview of how unauthorized practice of medicine cases are investigated and prosecuted in California:

Complaint or Report

The investigation often begins with a complaint or report filed by a patient, a concerned individual, or a regulatory agency. The complaint may include details about the alleged unauthorized practice of medicine, such as the individual involved, the type of services offered, and any harm or damages caused.

Preliminary Investigation

Law enforcement agencies or regulatory bodies initiate a preliminary investigation based on the complaint or report received. This involves collecting initial information, interviewing relevant parties, and determining the credibility of the allegations. If the evidence suggests a potential case of unauthorized practice of medicine, further investigation is conducted.

Gathering Evidence

Investigators gather evidence to establish the elements of the offense. This may include reviewing medical records, patient testimonies, financial records, advertisements, and any other relevant documentation. They may also seek expert opinions from licensed medical professionals to evaluate the services provided and determine if they fall within the scope of authorized practice.

Collaboration with Regulatory Bodies

In cases involving unauthorized practice of medicine, regulatory bodies, such as the California Medical Board, play a significant role. Investigators collaborate with these bodies to access relevant information, consult experts, and ensure compliance with the legal and ethical standards of medical practice.

Interviews and Statements

Investigators may conduct interviews with patients, witnesses, and the accused individuals to gather additional information. Statements obtained during these interviews can be crucial for establishing the facts of the case and identifying any potential defenses or mitigating factors.

Legal Review

Once the investigation is complete, the evidence is reviewed by legal authorities, such as prosecutors or district attorneys, who determine whether there is sufficient evidence to proceed with criminal charges. They assess the strength of the case, potential legal defenses, and the likelihood of securing a conviction in court.


If the decision is made to proceed with prosecution, charges are filed against the accused individuals. The case is then presented in court, where the prosecution and defense present their arguments, evidence, and witnesses. The court ultimately determines the guilt or innocence of the accused based on the presented evidence and applicable laws.

Penalties for Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

Here are some of the criminal penalties that individuals may face for unauthorized practice of medicine:

Misdemeanor Charges

Unauthorized practice of medicine can be charged as a misdemeanor offense. Misdemeanor convictions can result in penalties such as probation, community service, fines of up to $1,000, and up to one year in county jail.

Felony Charges

In certain cases, unauthorized practice of medicine may be charged as a felony offense. Felony charges are more severe and can result in maximum fines of $10,000, and up to 3 years of prison sentences.

Aggravating Factors

The presence of aggravating factors can lead to enhanced penalties. For example, if the unauthorized practice of medicine results in serious bodily harm or death to a patient, the penalties can be more severe. Aggravating factors may include intentional deception, fraud, or a pattern of repeated offenses.

Enhanced Sentencing

California has specific sentencing enhancements for certain offenses related to unauthorized practice of medicine. These enhancements may increase the severity of the penalties imposed, such as longer prison sentences or higher fines.


In cases where patients have suffered financial loss or harm due to unauthorized practice of medicine, the court may order the convicted individual to pay restitution. Restitution offers compensation to the victims for any financial damages they have incurred from the offense.

Civil Penalties

Civil penalties are separate from criminal charges and are aimed at addressing the violation and protecting public health and safety. Here are some potential civil penalties for unauthorized practice of medicine:

Monetary Fines

Regulatory authorities have the power to impose fines on individuals found guilty of unauthorized practice of medicine. The amount of fines varies based on the seriousness of the offense, any harm caused to patients, and other factors determined by the regulatory body. The fines can range from hundreds to thousands of dollars.

Revocation or Suspension of Licenses

In addition to criminal penalties, unauthorized practitioners may face the revocation or suspension of their professional licenses. Regulatory authorities, such as the California Medical Board, have the authority to take administrative actions against individuals who engage in unauthorized practice. The revocation or suspension of a license can prevent the individual from legally practicing medicine.

Cease and Desist Orders

Regulatory authorities can issue cease and desist orders to individuals engaged in unauthorized practice of medicine. These orders require the individual to immediately cease their unlawful activities. Failure to comply with a cease and desist order can result in further legal action and additional penalties.


Regulatory bodies can seek legal injunctions to prevent further unauthorized practice of medicine. An injunction is an order from the court that prohibits an individual from engaging in specific activities. Violating an injunction can lead to contempt of court charges and additional legal consequences.

Defenses Against Charges of Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

When facing charges of unauthorized practice of medicine, it is crucial to mount a strong defense to protect your rights and potentially mitigate the consequences. Here are some common defenses that can be employed against charges of unauthorized practice of medicine:

Lack of Intent

One possible defense is to argue that you did not have the intent to engage in unauthorized practice. You may demonstrate that you were not aware that your actions constituted practicing medicine without proper authorization. Lack of intent can be a valid defense, particularly if you can show that you believed you were acting within the scope of your qualifications or under appropriate supervision.

Lack of Evidence

Challenging the evidence against you is another defense strategy. This involves scrutinizing the prosecution's case and identifying any weaknesses, inconsistencies, or lack of concrete evidence linking you to the unauthorized practice of medicine. A skilled defense attorney can thoroughly investigate the evidence and challenge its credibility or relevance to weaken the prosecution's case.

Constitutional Violations

It is possible to challenge the legality of the search and seizure or how evidence was obtained. If your constitutional rights were violated during the investigation or arrest process, it may lead to the exclusion of evidence or dismissal of charges. A knowledgeable attorney can assess the circumstances of your case and determine if any constitutional violations occurred.

Mistaken Identity or Misinterpretation

Another defense strategy is to argue that you were mistakenly identified as an unauthorized practitioner or that your actions were misinterpreted. This defense relies on challenging the accuracy or credibility of witness testimonies, documentation, or any other evidence that might have led to your identification as the perpetrator.

Offenses Related to Unauthorized Practice of Medicine

While the primary offense is the unauthorized practice of medicine itself, there are related offenses that can be pursued depending on the circumstances. Here are some of the key offenses related to unauthorized practice:

  • Business and Professions Code Section 2052 — This code section makes it unlawful for any person to practice medicine without a valid license. Engaging in the diagnosis, treatment, or prescription of medications without proper authorization constitutes a violation of this section.
  • Business and Professions Code Section 2053 — This code section specifically addresses the prohibition of individuals falsely representing themselves as licensed healthcare professionals. It makes it illegal to use a false or fraudulent license, diploma, or any other document to mislead others into believing that the person is authorized to practice medicine.
  • Business and Professions Code Section 2054 — This code section prohibits aiding, abetting, or employing an unlicensed person to practice medicine. It applies to individuals or entities who knowingly assist or facilitate the unauthorized practice of medicine, such as providing office space, equipment, or financial support to unlicensed practitioners.
  • Health and Safety Code Section 11153 — This code section addresses the unlawful prescription or dispensing of controlled substances. Engaging in the unauthorized prescription, furnishing, or dispensing of controlled substances without proper authorization constitutes a violation of this section.
  • Health and Safety Code Section 11174 — This code section makes it illegal to possess or administer controlled substances without the appropriate licenses or authorizations. Engaging in the unauthorized possession or administration of controlled substances for medical purposes is a violation of this section.

Find a Criminal Defense Attorney Near Me

Operating an unauthorized business in medicine can result in criminal charges, civil penalties, and professional repercussions. It is crucial to seek legal assistance when facing charges related to the unauthorized practice of medicine or any related offenses. Our experienced defense lawyers at Long Beach Criminal Attorney can help you navigate the complex legal landscape while protecting your rights during the investigation and prosecution process, and build a strong defense strategy. Call us today at 562-308-7807.